If you receive a 1099-NEC as a sole proprietor (independent contract), you must fill out a Schedule C when filing your annual tax returns. This is true regardless of whether you are a full-time solopreneur or are generating income from a side hustle. The Schedule C is used to report the profits or losses related to your business. It can also be used to report wages/expenses you had a statutory employee and income/expenses of qualified joint ventures.
You may also need to file a Schedule C if you are a Single-Member limited liability company (SMLLC) as this type of entity is not treated as a separate entity for federal income tax purposes. It is treated the same a sole proprietorship unless you choose to have it treated as a corporation - which comes with additional rules that need to be followed.
The below also does not include a state tax-related item specific to your state. For state tax items you should always talk to a professional if you are not familiar with your state tax laws.
Note: If you want to skip out on the hassle of using a template, try our 1099 expense tracker to automatically categorize your receipts. Our software scans your bank/credit card statements to discover potential deductions. On average, our users save $5,600 from their tax bill. Claim your 14-day free trial here.
Compared to expenses, tracking the income that is reported on your Schedule C is fairly straightforward. If you make non-W2 income as a sole proprietor it needs to be tracked and included on your tax forms.
A common mistake is to assume you will receive a 1099-NEC for all of the income you generate. While you should be receiving a 1099-NEC from every customer/client you earn more than $600 from there is no guarantee they will fulfill their obligation. Not receiving your 1099 does not absolve you from accurately claiming your income.
Additionally, while the 1099-NEC minimum amount is $600, you are required to claim all of your income - even if it is $1. Fortunately, this also means you get to claim all of your expenses which could result in a net deduction if you spent more than made. This is very common in the first few years of a sole proprietorship.
On one hand, tracking your expenses is easy. If you spent money on your business, it is likely a business expense. On the other hand, depending on the type of expenses there are specific rules that need to be followed (such as prorating expenses based on personal/business use).
To make tracking Schedule C expenses easier, the best option is to use a 1099 template (Schedule C template). Most of the time, this will be an excel template because it is the simplest to use and easiest to customize based on your specific business. You can make a copy of our Google docs template here.
This is a bit of an unfair question but one that is often asked. The answer entirely depends on what needs to be tracked and how much effort you want to put into it.
For example, if you have a very small side-hustle and you are not preparing your own taxes then a free excel template should do the trick. On the other hand, if you are doing your own taxes or have a larger sole proprietorship then a premium solution is the safer choice but that doesn't mean you should limit yourself to a basic excel spreadsheet.
An automated expense tracker typically offers a more comprehensive solution. While it may require upfront or monthly costs, it also saves you time and provides peace of mind. Automated solutions should be consistently updated to align with current tax laws.
If you download a spreadsheet from 2016 it will not match up to the current Schedule C layout or current deduction rules.
This doesn't mean there are not excellent free 1099 excel spreadsheets available, it just means you need to be conscientious of the pros and cons of each option. Download Bonsai's free template here
This free excel template is perfect for a small sole proprietor or side hustle. It doesn't have all of the bells and whistles of a comprehensive tax solution but the template does provide all of the essential information need to prepare a Schedule C and could be provided to your tax professional.
Note: The IRS allows you to track receipts digitally. If you would like to save yourself a lot of time and maximize your deductions from your tax bill, try Bonsai Tax. Our tax software automatically tracks, organizes and records your deductions for you. Try a 14 day free trial here now.
The Instructions Tab has all of the basic instructions needed to use this spreadsheet and categorize expenses based on their Schedule C line.
There are 6 basic steps to using this 1099 Template
Step 1. Enter all expenses on the "All Business Expenses" tab of the free template
Step 2. Identify the total amount of each expense type by using the filter option on the "All Business Expenses" tab
Step 3. Complete the "Schedule C Expense Categories" tab by filter ing expenses on the "All Business Expenses" tab in order
Step 4. Identify all "Other Expenses" and add them to "Other Expenses - Grouped" tab
Step 5. Identify any expenses not previously included on the "Schedule C Expense Categories" tab or "Other Expenses - Grouped" tab
Step 5a. Identify which line of the Schedule C the remaining expenses should be deducted on.
Step 5b. If these expenses will be common in future years, add a new line on the "Schedule C Expenses Categories" tab
Step 6. Complete the "Business Use Percentage" column on the "Schedule C Expense Categories" tab as applicable.
We also offer an automatic 1099 expense tracker. This is an easy to use solution for tracking all of your business expenses for the year. It is ideal for freelancers, sole proprietors, and solopreneurs which need a more robust solution than the free template. It is also the perfect choice if you just want to save time with a more automated option than the free excel 1099 spreadsheet. Claim your 14-day free trial here. Users typically save $5,600 on their tax bill.
The All Business Expenses tab on the excel template is exactly what is sounds like. This should be treated as your source of truth. Every expense you incur should be included on this tab even if it is not tax deductible. Doing this will make it easy to compare and reconcile your bank statements, Profit/Loss statement, and transaction records at the end of your fiscal year.
The Date column may seem straightforward but how you report your taxes does make a difference. If you use a cash-basis method of accounting (which is the most common for side hustles and freelancers) then you enter the date you paid the expense. If you use an accrual method of accounting then you record the date the expense occurred. As a side note - if you are using the accrual method of accounting this spreadsheet will need to be used in tangent with your record keeping software to confirm accuracy and make any necessary adjusting entries following the close of your tax year.
Technically the Merchant tab is not required from a Schedule C perspective but it is one of the easiest way to accomplish the following:
Compare your spreadsheet against your receipts you save for taxes to ensure everything has been included and that there are no duplicate entries.
Most merchants will always fall into the same category expense so entering the merchant name will provide a reference point for future expenses (and double check the expense-type against prior expenses).
The Expense Amount column includes the total amount you paid for the expense. If you received a discount (for example, 10% off if you pay within 30 days) then you will only include the amount paid - not the total amount due if you use cash accounting. If you use accrual accounting then you can enter the amount you paid on this spreadsheet but your full set of books will need to include the total amount billed, the discount received, and the amount paid.
The Schedule C Category column will be used to define the primary category of the expense. This will dictate which line of the Schedule C the expense will be reported on.
This category may seem redundant at first glance but it is incredibly important for several reasons. First, it will allow you to easily determine if it is more beneficial to claim a standard mileage rate for vehicle usage or if it is worth effort (assuming you have all of your documentation) to itemize your vehicle expenses.
Second, it is easier to account for meals and business travel. Both meals and business travel have certain restrictions on how much is deductible (or if it is deductible) so adding a subtype explanation will make it easier to sort at the end of the year.
Third, the subtype is particularly important for justifying an expense as "Other Expenses". In order to fall into this category, there can be no doubt an expense can be placed in another category. If you are using a tax preparer the subtype could help clue them into whether an Other Expense could actually fall into another line item. Additionally, you will still need to list Other Expenses into general categories on the Schedule C so have the subtype will save you time if you are filing your taxes on your own.
This excel template tab may be seem like a bit of duplicate compared to the "All Business Expenses" tab but it offers a unique benefit when completing tax forms because of how the data is characterized. As discussed earlier, your other expenses must still be line-itemed based on a grouping. The sole purpose of this tab is allow you to group your Other Expenses into the correct subcategory. Depending on the subcategory it also allows you to designate a specific Business Use Percentage which is important if you have a home office or utilize resources for both business and personal use. You could also use our free home office expenses spreadsheet to track your receipts.
This tab, by default, includes only the Schedule C lines most commonly used by freelancers/sole proprietors for 1099 deductions. As a result, your type of business may benefit from adding additional lines.
This spreadsheet begins with Line 8 of the Schedule C. Advertising and Promotion includes anything you can tie back to either generating new business/clients or boosting recurring sales from current and prior clients. Advertising is always 100% tax deductible as an expense
Line 9 deals specifically with vehicle expenses. This type of expense can get tricky based on the size of your fleet and how you plan on claiming deductions. You can claim the actual expenses vs the standard mileage deduction.
To use the standard mileage deduction, you take the number of miles driven for business purposes multiplied by the annual deduction rate. There are some restrictions on who can take this deduction.
To use the standard mileage rate deduction, you must own or lease the vehicle and:
Keep in mind that to use this method of deduction, you must select it in the first year the vehicle is in service for your business. After the first year you do have the option to switch to the itemized option. The exception is if you lease your vehicle. If you lease your vehicle, you must use the standard mileage rate for the entire lease period, including renewals. Try our free mileage excel spreadsheet to track miles for taxes.
To use the actual expense method you must track all of your vehicle related expenses like gasoline and can deduct a portion of those expenses based on business use. Business use is based on the miles driven for qualified business purposes vs. the miles driven for personal use during the tax year. There are also special depreciation rules which apply to this method of deduction.
This line covers the total cost of contract labor for the tax year. This includes all payments to persons you do not treat as employees. Simply put, any amount you pay to individuals sole proprietors that do not receive a W-2 will be included. Keep in mind that if you pay someone more than $600 you must provide them with a 1099-NEC and file the 1099-NEC with the IRS. Prior to the use of the 1099-NEC, the 1099-MISC forms were used for this purpose.
This expense line is used to deduct any insurance premiums paid for business insurance. This does not include amounts paid for employee health/accident insurance. You also cannot deduct amounts credited to any type of reserve for self-insurance. You also cannot deduct premiums paid for insurance policies that cover lost earnings due to sickness or disability (typically these policies are purchase by sole proprietors).
This Schedule C line item is fairly clear. You can deduct amounts paid to accountants and attorneys if the expense is due to the ordinary and necessary course of your business. This includes tax preparation and tax planning.
For sole proprietors it is important to point out you do not include home office expenses in this line. You only include standard office expenses such as postage and general office supplies.
Line 22 of the Schedule C can be tricky depending on what types of products/services you provide. Generally, you can deduct the cost of materials/supplies used in you business. The thing to keep in mind is that on this line you can only deduct supplies used during the tax year. You cannot buy a bunch of supplies at the end of the tax year and treat them as a Supplies deduction if you did not use them during the tax year.
There are a handful of taxes and licenses you deduct on the Schedule C.
There are also a laundry list of taxes and licenses you cannot deduct so it is worth taking a look at the IRS inclusive/exclusive list.
Line 24a is for all expenses related to lodging and transportation connected to overnight travel for business. Line 24b is for meals so do not include it in line 24a. If you do not want to keep track of incidental travel expenses there is a flat daily incidental amount which may change from one year to another. We recommend you use a travel expense tracker to easily export your records.
For Line 24b you can include expenses for meals while traveling. You can use either a percentage of your actual business meal expenses or the standard IRS meal allowance.
For Line 26, you will include the total salaries and wages for the tax year minus any applicable credits. The most common credits in 2020 are applied to the following forms:
The home office deduction can be incredibly complicated if you plan on itemizing. If you itemize your home office deduction, and you are not familiar with the process, it is probably worth touching base with a tax professional for at least the first year to avoid a home office deduction audit.
This line is where you include all the items on the "Other Expenses - Grouped" tab.
A verbal contract (formally called an oral contract) refers to an agreement between two parties that's made —you guessed it— verbally.
Formal contracts, like those between an employee and an employer, are typically written down. However, some professional transactions take place based on verbally agreed terms.
Freelancers are a good example of this. Often, freelancers will take on projects having agreed on the terms and payment via the phone, or an email. Unfortunately, sometimes clients don't pull through on their agreements, and hardworking freelancers can find themselves out of pocket and wondering whether a legal battle is worth all the hassle.
The main differences between written and oral contracts are that the former is signed and documented, whereas the latter is solely attributed to verbal communication.
Verbal contracts are a bit of a gray area for most people unfamiliar with contract law —which is most of us, right?— due to the fact that there's no physical evidence to support the claims made by the implemented parties.
For any contract (written or verbal) to be binding, there are four major elements which need to be in place. The crucial elements of a contract are as follows:
Therefore, an oral agreement has legal validity if all of these elements are present. However, verbal contracts can be difficult to enforce in a court of law. In the next section, we take a look at how oral agreements hold up in court.
Most business professionals are wary of entering into contracts orally because they can difficult to enforce in the face of the law.
If an oral contract is brought in front of a court of law, there is increased risk of one party (or both!) lying about the initial terms of the agreement. This is problematic for the court, as there's no unbiased way to conclude the case; often, this will result in the case being disregarded. Moreover, it can be difficult to outline contract defects if it's not in writing.
That being said, there are plenty of situations where enforceable contracts do not need to be written or spoken, they're simply implied. For instance, when you buy milk from a store, you give something in exchange for something else and enter into an implied contract, in this case - money is exchanged for goods.
There are some types of contracts which must be in writing.
The Statute of Frauds is a legal statute which states that certain kinds of contracts must be executed in writing and signed by the parties involved. The Statute of Frauds has been adopted in almost all U.S states, and requires a written contract for the following purposes:
Typically, a court of law won't enforce an oral agreement in any of these circumstances under the statute. Instead, a written document is required to make the contract enforceable.
Contract law is generally doesn't favor contracts agreed upon verbally. A verbal agreement is difficult to prove, and can be used by those intent on committing fraud. For that reason, it's always best to put any agreements in writing and ensure all parties have fully understood and consented to signing.
Verbal agreements can be proven with actions in the absence of physical documentation. Any oral promise to provide the sale of goods or perform a service that you agreed to counts as a valid contract. So, when facing a court of law, what evidence can you provide to enforce a verbal agreement?
Unfortunately, without solid proof, it may be difficult to convince a court of the legality of an oral contract. Without witnesses to testify to the oral agreement taking place or other forms of evidence, oral contracts won't stand up in court. Instead, it becomes a matter of "he-said-she-said" - which legal professionals definitely don't have time for!
If you were to enter into a verbal contract, it's recommended to follow up with an email or a letter confirming the offer, the terms of the agreement , and payment conditions. The more you can document the elements of a contract, the better your chances of legally enforcing a oral contract.
Another option is to make a recording of the conversation where the agreement is verbalized. This can be used to support your claims in the absence of a written agreement. However, it's always best to gain the permission of the other involved parties before hitting record.
Fundamentally, most verbal agreements are legally valid as long as they meet all the requirements for a contract. However, if you were to go to court over one party not fulfilling the terms of the contract, proving that the interaction took place can be extremely taxing.
So, ultimately, the question is: written or verbal agreements?
Any good lawyer, contract law firm, or legal professional would advise you to make sure you formalize any professional agreement with a written agreement. Written contracts provide a secure testament to the conditions that were agreed and signed by the two parties involved. If it comes to it, a physical contract is much easier to eviden in legal circumstances.
Freelancers, in particular, should be aware of the extra security that digital contracts may provide. Many people choose to stick to executing contracts verbally because they're not sure how to write a contract, or they think writing out the contract terms is too complicated or requires expensive legal advice. However, this is no longer the case.
Today, we have a world of resources available at our fingertips. The internet is a treasure trove of invaluable information, platforms, and software that simplifies our lives. Creating, signing, and sending contracts has never been easier. What's more, you don't have to rely on a hiring a lawyer to explain all that legal jargon anymore.
There are plenty of tools available online for freelancers to use for guidance when drafting digital contracts. Tools like Bonsai provide a range of customizable, vetted contract templates for all kinds of freelance professionals. No matter what industry you're operating in, Bonsai has a professional template to offer.
A written contract makes the agreement much easier to prove the terms of the agreement in case something were to go awry. The two parties involved can rest assured that they're legal rights are protected, and the terms of the contract are sufficiently documented. Plus, it provides both parties with peace of mind to focus on the tasks at hand.
Bonsai's product suite for freelancers allows users to make contracts from scratch, or using professional templates, and sign them using an online signature maker.
With Bonsai, you can streamline and automate all of the boring back-office tasks that come with being a freelancer. From creating proposals that clients can't say no to, to sealing the deal with a professional contract - Bonsai will revolutionize the way you do business as a freelancer.
Why not secure your business today and sign up for a free trial?